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Full text of "The Velox book"

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The 

Velox 
Book 




LPp 



The working 
of a simple 
paper 
told in 
simple terms. 



J 




Velox may be safely manipu- 
lated ten feet from the ordinary 
gas flame. 



Revised 
April, 1909 



VELOX 



__ . Velox is the original "gas light" or 

, developing-out paper. Up to the time 

. tn . e . Velox was introduced (1889) the 
lgina amateur photographer was practical- 
ly dependent on daylight and the more or less 
slow printing-out papers, and on dark, cloudy 
days printing had to be entirely suspended. 
When Velox was first introduced most photo- 
graphers were skeptical as to results and could 
comprehend neither the economic nor the artistic 
possibilities of the new product. 

A careful trial proved its value and soon 
Velox was almost universally used whenever the 
saving of time was important. 

To the amateur Velox was especially wel- 
come, as its speed afforded ample time for 
making prints and its various surfaces gave 
opportunity to produce artistic results previous- 
ly impossible. 

The fact that prints could be made at any 
time of day or night, by any light, quickly 
popularized this product among the users of 
photographic papers. 



. , Velox is suitable for every class of 

*Tn w-if WOI *k» as is fully demonstrated under 

Dility the heading of "Surfaces and 

Grades." Velox should not be confused with 

Bromide or any other paper; it has distinctive 



qualities of its own which have never been 
successfully imitated. Many improvements 
have recently been made in its manufacture 
and to-day Velox is the perfected product of 
years of experimennt. 

The different surfaces and grades in which it 
is manufactured enable the user to produce 
good prints from almost any negative, suiting 
his taste as well as the peculiar requirements 
of the negatives. 

Surfaces Velox * s made in six different sur- 

and faces and divided broadly into two 
Grades g rades °f papers, called "Regular" 
and "Special." As these trade terms 
have reference to speed and contrast and not 
surface, we could as well say "slow" and "fast" 
or "hard" and "soft." In each grade will be 
found a variety of surfaces. Choose the surface 
which best suits you and which will harmonize 
with the subject of your picture. Select your 
negatives, remembering that the "Regular" 
papers print slowly, but develop quickly, and 
are adapted for negatives lacking contrast, and 
known as " thin " or " weak " negatives. 
"Special" papers require shorter exposure and 
longer development (as compared with the 
"Regular") and are for use with "contrasty" 
negatives. Such negatives are also referred to 
as being strong, thick, dense or hard. 

Royal Velox differs from the other Velox 
papers in that it is coated on a stock having a 
cream tint, just a soft mellow tone that pre- 
vents harshness in the high lights. The stock 
is somewhat heavier than the usual Velox stock, 
about half-way between the single and the 
double weight. 

Royal Velox prints are delightful when de- 
veloped in the ordinary way, but to get their 
full value should be re-developed. See page 27. 

Royal Velox is furnished in both "Regular" 
and "Special," but in one weight of paper only. 



Any negatives which will produce good re- 
sults with printing-out paper should be printed 
on Special, while Regular Velox is adapted to 
negatives which are too soft for other photo- 
graphic papers, or when hard, contrasty prints 
are required. 

To those familiar with Velox paper it is an 
easy matter to select the grade which is best 
suited for the results desired. The novice, how- 
ever, is guided usually by the advice of others 
and often is misled into using a wrong grade of 
Velox, thereby failing to secure the results ex- 
pected, and is inclined to believe that the paper 
is at fault. The following table of grades and 
weights of Velox should be an aid to those 
contemplating using this paper: 

SURFACES, WEIGHTS AND GRADES OF VELOX 



GRADE 


SURFACE 


SPEED 


*Velvet Velox 


Semi-Gloss 


Special 


*Velvet Velox 


Semi-Gloss 


Regular 


*Portrait Velox 


Smooth Matte 


Special 


Carbon Velox 


Matte 


Regular 


Carbon Velox 


Matte 


Special 


*Rough Velox 


Matte 


Special 


Glossy Velox 


Enameled 


Regular 


* Glossy Velox 


Enameled 


Special 


Royal Velox 


Matte 


Regular 


Royal Velox 


Matte 


Special 



^Furnished also in Double Weight Velox; 
double weight papers require no mount and 
when printed under a mask which will insure a 
white margin, afford a very artistic effect. 



Velox Glossary 

In order that the beginner may understand 
and be fully informed, the following glossary 
has been compiled, including all technical terms 
indispensable in describing the characteristics 
and manipulation of Velox: 

Abrasion Marks. 

Black lines or markings produced on the 
surface of photographic paper by rubbing 
or pressure. 

Actinic. 

The "actinic rays' ' of light are those which 
produce chemical changes or photographic 
action. 

Air Bells. 

Bubbles on sensitized surface of prints, pro- 
duced by immersing the paper too quickly, 
or face down in the developer. 

Bath. 

A term applied to a toning, developing or 
other solution. 

Blisters. 

(See article on page 32.) 

Burnisher. 

A device for securing a high gloss or 
polish on certain photographic papers. 

Concentrated. 

As applied to Nepera liquid preparations 
means that the chemicals which comprise 
them have been dissolved in the least 
possible quantity of water. (See pages 
15 and 16.) 

Contrasty. 

A term applied to prints meaning hard, 
"chalky," extremely black shadows and 
white highlights; lacking in detail as 
applied to negatives. 



Dense. 

Applied to negatives which have been over- 
developed. 

-Desiccated. 

Anhydrous. Dry powder, not crystals. Ap- 
plied to chemical salts from which all water 
has been removed. 

Developing- Out Paper or D. O. P. 

Sensitized paper upon which the photo- 
graphic image is invisible until development 
has taken place. Applied to "gaslight" 
papers or those printed by artificial light. 
Generally applied to papers which require 
longer exposure than Bromide papers. 

Diffused Light. 

Light which does not strike directly, but is 
arrested and diffused by some medium such 
as ground glass. 

Dodge. 

To dodge is to prevent light from striking 
a portion of a negative when printing by 
shading that portion with some opaque 
body. 

Emulsion. 

The sensitized coating which receives the 
image impressed through action of light 
rays. 

Embossing Board. 

A device for producing prints having coun- 
tersunk margins. 

Exposure. 

The act of submitting sensitized surfaces 
to the action of light. 

Fix, Fixing Out. 

To settle or establish permanency of prints 
or negatives by destroying light sensitive- 
ness. (See Hypo.) 



Flat. 

Weak or thin, lacking contrast. (Applied 
to prints or negatives.) 

Forcing. 

Prolonging development of under-exposed 
prints, films or plates. 

Ferro Tin, Ferrotype Plate. 

Thin plates of Japanned iron especially 
prepared for squeegeeing prints. 

Freaks. 

Peculiar white markings caused by incor- 
rect developing solutions. (See article, 
page 32.) 

Fog. (Light) 

Dim, grayish color produced by white light 
striking the paper before or during devel- 
opment. Hazy, dim appearance in lights 
and shadows, due to an error in the pre- 
paration of developer, or may be caused by 
impure condition of chemicals used. (See 
page 30.) 

Half-Tones. 

All gradations between highlights and deep- 
est shadows. 

Graduate. 

A receptacle for measuring liquids. Ne- 
pera Solutions are contained in graduated 
bottles. 

Hard. 

Contrasty, lacking detail. Applied to neg- 
atives or prints. 

Hardener. 

(See Velox Liquid Hardener, page 18.) 

High-Lights. 

Brightest or whitest parts of an image. 
The denser portions of a negative or the 
lightest parts of a print. 



Hydrometer. 

An instrument for testing the specific 
gravity of liquids. (In photography, the 
silver Actinometer.) 

Hypo. 

Hyposulphite of soda. (See page 17.) 

Latitude. 

Refers to the limits within which exposure 
or development can safely be carried on. 

Milky. 

Appearance of an incorrect fixing bath. 
Often the result of using impure chemicals. 

Negative. 

The picture obtained in the camera by ex- 
posing a specially prepared glass plate or 
film, which when developed produces a re- 
versed image and color, — right for left and 
black for white. 

Non-Actinic. (Light) 

Is known photographically as being a light 
which has no effect on sensitized surfaces. 

Oxidation. 

As applied to developer — a deterioration 
due to the presence of oxygen. An oxi- 
dized developer is dark in color and usually 
causes discoloration of the print. 

Over-Exposure. 

Too long exposure to printing light. 

Over-Development. 

Too long a time in the developing solution. 

P. O. P. or Printing-Out Paper. 

Sensitized paper upon which the image be- 
comes visible on printing and is made per- 
manent by toning and fixing. 



Printing Frame. 

A specially constructed frame for making 
prints. Holds the negative and sensitive 
paper in contact while printing. 

Positive. 

A term used in contradistinction to nega- 
tive. 

Precipitate. 

A substance which, having been dissolved, 
is again separated from its solvent and 
thrown to the bottom of the vessel con- 
taining it. 

Shadows. 

The thinner portions of a negative or the 
darker portions of a print. 

Squeegeeing. 

Placing wet prints face down on ferrotype 
plates to obtain high polish. 



Usually a strip of soft rubber set in a 
handle, or a rubber roller, and used to 
place a print in contact with the ferrotype 
plate. 

Squeegee Tins. 

(See ferrotype plates.) 

Soft. 

Term applied to print or negative; refers 
to lack of brilliancy or contrast. A "soft" 
print will contain all possible detail. 

Stretcher. 

A light frame covered with cheese cloth 
on which prints may be laid to dry. (See 
page 19.) 

Spotting. 

Touching out spots or defects in finished 
prints with fine sable brush and India ink 
or spotting colors. 



Ten Per Cent. Solution. 

Approximately a solution made by dissolv- 
ing one ounce (by weight) of dry chemical 
in nine fluid ounces of water. 

Tone. 

The shade, hue or degree of color prevail- 
ing in a negative or print. 

Thick. 

(See dense.) 

Under-Exposure. 

Too short an exposure for perfect results. 

Weak. 

Thin, soft, lifeless, lacking contrast. 



Manipulation 



Velox prints may be successfully made, using 
daylight for exposure, but we strongly recom- 
mend that artificial light be used, as it is much 
more uniform, and it will therefore be easier to 
obtain satisfactory prints. Select a north win- 
dow, if possible, as the light from this direction 
will be more uniform. Owing to its sensitive- 
ness the paper should be handled in very sub- 
dued light, otherwise it will be liable to fog. 
Proper precautions should be taken to pull 
down the window shades and darken the room 
sufficiently during manipulation. To test your 
working light, place an unexposed sheet of 
Special Velox, emulsion side up, on your work 
table in the same position that your developing 
tray occupies cover one-half of it with a sheet 
of cardboard, and let it remain there two 
minutes, then develop it. If the half of 
the sheet which was uncovered turns gray or 



black, and the covered portion remains white, 
it is a positive indication that the light you 
are using is too strong. If, however, the entire 
sheet remains white your light is safe. Never 
handle Velox in a light which will not stand 
this test. If the light is too strong for print- 
ing it should be subdued or diffused by the 
use of several thicknesses of white tissue 
paper. In the following instructions for man- 
ipulating Velox, it must be understood that 
artificial light, preferably gas with a Welsbach 
burner, will be the light used. A kerosene 
lamp, fitted with a round burner (known as 
Rochester burner), may be used, but owing 
to the decidedly yellow light this affords, a 
considerably longer exposure will be necessary 
than when using a Welsbach light. 

The comparative exposure with Regular and 
Special Velox with various sources of light is as 
follows : 





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SPECIAL 
VELOX 


4 x 5 or 

smaller 


7 inches 


10 sec 


20 sec. 


30 sec. 


40 sec. 


REGULAR 
VELOX 


4 x 5 or 

smaller 


7 inches 


40 sec. 


80 sec. 


2 min. 


3 min. 



This table is only approximate, as owing to 
the different lights used and the varying den- 
sities of negatives it is impossible to give an 
absolute rule. It serves, however, as a guide 
to enable the beginner to approximate the 
correct exposure. From this obtain the cor- 
rect time, always being guided by the rule 
as to time of development given at top of 
page 14. 



10 






Printing- ^ ne aDsom t e necessities for making 
Reauisites ^ elox P rmts are ^ ew m number 
^ and simple in character. Either 

daylight or artificial light are of course essen- 
tial, also developing solutions and water for 
washing the prints. The ordinary printing 
frame is used in making exposures. The artis- 
tic possibilities of Velox make it worthy of the 
study of all photographers and a convenient 
apparatus for measuring the distance from the 
light and for adjusting each negative to the 
proper angle of exposure is of ereat assistance. 
As an aid we recommend the Velox Amateur 
Printer, not only to help those who are already 
making good Velox prints, but to assist the 
beginner in mastering the delightful art of 
Velox printing in the shortest possible time. 




The construction of the Velox printer is 
simple and it is furnished with attachments for 
use either with gas or electricity. 



Aside from suitable light and work room, 
you will require: 

3 trays, preferably enameled iron (a full 
size larger than the prints to be made). 

1 printing frame (and glass to fit, if films 
are to be printed.) 

1 4-oz. graduate. 

1 bottle Nepera Solution. 

1 bottle Velox Liquid Hardener. 

1 lb. Crystal or Granulated Hypo. 

1 package each Regular and Special Velox. 

Arrange the three trays before you on your 
work table in this order: 



2 ozs. Nepera 

Solution 

4 ozs. Water 

1 



Clean Water 



4 ozs. Hypo 
16 ozs. Water 
i oz. Hardener 



In the center of the above spaces we have 
indicated the solution which each tray should 
contain for developing Regular Velox. If 
Special is used, double the quantity of water 
should be added to the developer (Tray No. 
1). Do not be too sparing of the amount of 
the solutions used, especially of your fixing 
bath (Tray No. 3) ; if making three or four 
dozen prints (4 x 5) use a full pint (see 
formula, page 18) ; and do not keep it after 
using, as a fresh bath will give best results. 

Proper temperature is important and for best 
results the developer should be 70 degrees Fahr. 
and the fixing bath and wash water 50 degrees 
Fahr. If the developer exceeds 70 degrees the 
prints are liable to fog and the emulsion soften. 
If too cold, chemical action is retarded, result- 
ing in flat, weak prints. 

12 



You are now ready for exposure and 
Printing the printing frame should be filled. 
Place the sensitized side of the sheet 
of Velox against the film side of the negative, 
the paper curls slightly, the sensitive side being 
Concave. An absolute test is to bite the corner 
of the sheet, the sensitive side will adhere to the 
teeth. 

Place the printing frame the correct distance 
from the artificial light used, holding the frame 
away from the burner a distance equal to the 
diagonal of the negative. To prove that the 
light is evenly diffused at the point selected 
for exposure, take a piece of white cardboard, 
the size of the negative, and move its position 
with reference to the light, until you find the 
shortest distance at which an even illumination 
is secured. A few seconds exposure will be re- 
quired when printing an average negative on 
Special Velox. Regular Velox needs from four 
to five times as much exposure as Special, if in 
using both grades the printing frame is held at 
the same distance from the light. We suggest 
that before making the first exposure the cut- 
ting of a piece of Velox paper into strips about 
an inch wide and placing one of them over an 
important part of the negative, make the ex- 
posure, using your best judgment as to the dis- 
tance from the light and the time of printing. 
Develop it, and if not satisfactory try another 
strip, varying the time as indicated by the first 
result. When the desired effect is secured, you 
can make any number of prints from the same 
negative, and if the time of exposure, distance 
from light as well as the time of developing are 
identical, all the prints should be equally good. 
By comparing your other negatives with the 
one you have tested, you will be able to make a 
fairly accurate estimate of exposure required 
by any negative. 

After taking the exposed piece of paper from 
the printing frame, in a safe place previously 
selected, it is ready for development. Xhs &W 

43 



print should be immersed face up in the devel- 
oper (Tray No. 1) and quickly and evenly cov- 
ered with the solution. Regular Velox should 
be developed to the proper depth in from fifteen 
to twenty seconds; Special, about thirty seconds. 
With our prepared liquid developers, the addi- 
tion of Bromide of Potassium is unnecessary, 
the correct proportion being in the solution. 
As soon as the image has reached the desired 
depth remove from the developer to the tray 
(No. 2) and rinse for a moment, turning the 
print several times, then place it in the acid 
fixing bath (Tray No. 3), keeping the print 
moving for a few seconds, the same as was 
done when rinsing, so as to give even and 
thorough fixing, preventing stains and other 
troubles. Leave the print in this solution 
until thoroughly fixed; this will take about 
fifteen minutes. When fixed remove from the 
fixing bath and wash thoroughly for about an 
hour in running water, then dry. After dry- 
ing, prints may be trimmed and mounted. 

You should be systematic in working, re- 
membering that cleanliness is essential in pho- 
tography. Care must be taken to prevent the 
Hypo in any way getting into the tray contain- 
ing the developer. Have a clean towel when be- 
ginning the work and wipe your hands each 
time after you have handled prints in Hypo 
solution. 

, Velox requires a special devel- 

^ -Notes on ^ oper and should not be used 
Development w ^ h one made for plate and 

film development only. (Nepera Solution, how- 
ever, is a universal developer — see page 16.) 
Various developing agents are used in the 
production of Velox prints and are marketed 
under different trade names, such as Amidol, 
Ortol, Edinol, Metol and Hydroquinone, etc. 
Amidol affords a very blue-black tone, but 
owing to rapid oxidation, a fresh solution 
should be mixed each time prints are to be 
made. Ortol and Edinol afford very satis- 



factory results. It has been proved, however, 
that Metol and Hydroquinone in combination 
yield the very best results on Velox when used 
in the proportion given in our formula. Owing 
to the difficulty many have in securing abso- 
lutely pure chemicals and the trouble and 
subsequent loss of material to those attempting 
to compound their own developers, we recom- 
mend the use of our liquid developers, Nepera 
Solution and N. A. Velox Liquid Developer, 
for Velox papers. To those who prefer to 
prepare their own solution, we advise the 
following formula: 

M-Q De- (Dissolve chemicals in the order 

veloper named. ) 

METRIC 
SYSTEM 

Water 10 ozs. =300 c. c. 

Metol 7 grains = j^ gramme 

Hydroquinone 30 grains = 2 grammes 

Sulphite Soda (desiccated) 110 grains = 7 grammes 

Carbonate Soda (desiccated) .200 grains = 13 grammes 

10 percent, solution Bromide Potassium. .40 drops = 40 drops 

This solution will keep indefinitely if placed 
in bottles filled to the neck and tightly corked. 
It should be used full strength for "Regular 
Velox," but should be diluted with equal parts 
of water when "Special" papers are developed. 
' . __ 1 This is an excellent ready to use, 
J~' .^ 0X concentrated developer for Velox 
-Liquid papers. Unlike any other devel- 
oper oper, it has certain qualities 
which make it unique in photographic work. 
N. A. (non-abrasion) means that all abrasion 
or friction marks, to which all glossy develop- 
ing-out papers are particularly susceptible, 
will be prevented by this solution. Another 
feature is the guide it gives to thorough fixing — 
the print is not absolutely fixed until the canar\ 
yellow color entirely disappears by fixing in 
a correctly prepared Acid Hypo Bath. This 
developer yields the softest possible prints 
when undiluted and it is well to remember 

that THE STRONGER THE DEVELOPER, THE SOFTER 
THE PRINT. 

15 



The following formula should be used for 
Special Velox: 

N. A. Velox Liquid Developer 1 oz. 

Water 4 ozs. 

Developer for Regular Velox: 

N. A. Velox Liquid Developer 2 ozs. 

Water 4 ozs. 

It is important that the temperature of the 
developing solution should be 70 degrees Fahr. 
In summer, if found necessary to cool the de- 
veloper, do not place ice in the solution, as it 
will dilute it. Place the tray containing devel- 
oper into one of larger size, packing ice around 
it. N. A. DEVELOPER SHOULD NOT BE 
USED FOR DEVELOPING PLATES, 
FILMS OR BROMIDE PAPERS. 



This is known as the "universal" 
Nepera developer because it may be used 
Solution not only for Velox, but Azo, Bro- 
mide paper, films or plates. Like 
all Nepera Liquids, it is a concentrated solu- 
tion with the combination of purest chemicals 
which will give the best results. It differs from 
N. A. Velox Liquid Developer in that it does 
not possess the non-abrasion and fixing-guide 
properties; but on the other hand, when used 
in combination with Nepera Capsules, it is ex- 
cellent for films or plates, giving negatives of 
the quality best suited for developing-out paper. 

For Regular Velox use: 

Nepera Solution 2 ozs. 

Water 4 ozs. 

For Special Velox use : 

Nepera Solution 1 oz. 

Water 4 ozs. 

The temperature of the bath should be 70° Fahr. 

16 



For Bromide papers use: 

Nepera Solution 1 oz. 

Water 6 ozs. 

For Film in Kodak Film Tank or Kodak 
Developing Machine use: 

Nepera Solution V 2 oz. 

Water 12 ozs. 

Contents of one Nepera Capsule. 
Develop for twenty minutes. 

Without Tank or Developing Machine, using 
factorial system, 10 is the factor, use: 

Nepera Solution y 2 oz. 

Water 12 ozs. 

Contents of one Nepera Capsule. 
Temperature should be 60 degrees Fahr. 

Sodium Hypo-Sulphite (or Hypo as 
Fixing commercially termed) may be ob- 
tained for use in either a granulated 
or crystal form. Its purpose is to dissolve the 
silver salts which have not been acted upon by 
light. The importance of this chemical is evi- 
dent, but it is probable that no part or process 
of photography is more abused than that of 
correctly preparing a fixing bath and properly 
fixing prints. To secure permanency prints 
must be fixed in a fresh, acid fixing bath. When 
Hypo is first dissolved in water, the tempera- 
ture of the solution is materially reduced. It 
is important that the temperature of a fixing 
bath should be maintained as near to 50 degrees 
Fahr. as possible. Probably more prints change 
color from insufficient fixing than lack of 
washing, so these points should be given atten- 
tion. Have plenty of solution strong enough 
to thoroughly fix prints in at least fifteen 
minutes. Always use the acid hardener in the 
bath, as it will overcome the tendency of the 
fixing bath to cause blisters and stains, and 
move the prints about for the first few seconds 
after immersion to stop the action of the de- 
veloper at once over the entire surface of the 
print. 

17 



Our formula for preparing the Acid Hypo 
fixing bath is as follows: 

Water 64 ozs . 

Hyposulphite of Soda (crystal or 

granulated) 16 ozs. 

When thoroughly dissolved, add the follow- 
ing hardening solution, dissolving the chemicals 
separately and in the order named: 

Water 5 ozs> 

Sulphite of Soda (desiccated) % oz. 

Acetic Acid No. 8 (containing 25 

per cent, pure acid) 3 ozs. 

Powdered Alum 1 oz. 

This solution will keep, and one pint of it 
will fix at least one-half gross of 4 x 5 prints. 
If sulphite and carbonate of soda in crystal 
form are substituted for desiccated, double 
the quantities mentioned should be used. 

Amateurs will find it is advisable to use our 
prepared solutions and the concentrated Velox 
Liquid Hardener is especially recommended. 

Water 16 ozs. 

Hyposulphite of Soda 4 ozs. 

Velox Liquid Hardener 1 oz. 

The finished prints must be en- 
Notes tirely free from Hypo. To wash 
on a batch of 100 4 x 5 prints, using 
Washing two trays of suitable size and 

transferring each print separately 
from one tray to the other, changing the water 
at least twelve times, will take a full hour for 
the process. In running water where the prints 
can be kept constantly moving so that each in- 
dividual print has a thorough washing, from 
one-half to one hour, according to the number 
of prints, will be required. Prints do not wash 
if piled in a bunch in a tray and the water 
simply runs in at one end of the tray and out 
of the other. In some localities where there is 
an excessive amount of iron or impurity in 
water, the whites in the prints may have a 

18 



slight yellowish tone. Prints should not be 
allowed to wash any longer than is necessary 
to completely free them from hypo. The tem- 
perature of the water in winter should be kept 
as uniform as possible, as ice cold water will 
cause blistering. When running water is used 
for washing, the stream should not be allowed 
to fall directly on the prints as it will cause 
breaks in the fibre of the paper, producing 
blisters. Place a tumbler or graduate in the 
washing tray and allow the water to run into 
it and overflow into the tray. To determine 
when the print is thoroughly free from hypo, 
the following test formula may be success- 
fully employed: 

Permanganate of Potash 8 gr. 

Caustic Soda 7 gr. 

Water (distilled) 8 ozs. 

Fill a glass with pure water to which you 
have added 3 or 4 drops of the potash solution. 
Then take a couple of prints from the wash- 
water and allow the water from the prints to 
drip into the glass. If hypo is present, the 
violet color of the water in the glass will change 
to a slight greenish tint in from five to seven 
minutes. In such case return prints to the 
washwater to remain until similar tests show 
that the hypo has been entirely eliminated. 

After prints have been thoroughly 
Drying washed, remove from the wash- 
water and place on a clean glass in 
a pile face down and press out superfluous 
water. Then lay out separately, face down on 
cheese-cloth stretchers. These may be con- 
structed by making a frame work of light wood 
and tacking unbleached cheese-cloth tightly 
over it. Prints dried in this manner will curl 
but a trifle. 

If stretchers are not to be had, dry the prints 
face down on clean, uncolored cloths, or towels, 
which are free from lint. 

19 



Never Dry Velox prints between blotters or 
on papers. They are likely to stick and cause 
much annoyance. 

Glossy and Special Glossy Velox 
Enameled prints can be burnished or squee- 
Surface j geed. Take prints from the wash- 
Paper I water and place face down on a 
fa ferrotype tin, squeegee into abso- 
lute contact and allow to become bone dry, 
when they will peel off with the desired luster. 
If the tin has been in use for some time, por- 
tions of prints may stick; to prevent this, pre- 
pare the tins as follows: 

Dissolve ten grains of beeswax in one ounce 
of benzine ; allow this to stand for a few hours, 
in which time a precipitate will be formed. The 
clear solution should be used for polishing the 
tins, applying to the surface of the ferrotype 
plate with a soft cloth (canton flannel). When 
the surface of the tin has been thoroughly cov- 
ered with this preparation, the tin should be 
polished with a piece of dry canton flannel to 
remove as much of the beeswax as possible. As 
beeswax varies in its composition to a certain 
extent, the solution may vary somewhat in con- 
sistency so that an addition of benzine may be 
necessary to permit polishing the tins easily. 
Clean the tins occasionally with scalding 
water, in order to remove any particles of 
gelatine which may remain on them from for- 
mer prints. 

Velox prints should be trimmed 
Mounting to size desired before mounting. 
They should be dry and perfectly 
flat for trimming, and a trimming board should 
be used instead of a knife or ruler, for with the 
board absolutely true edges may be obtained. 
The simplest and most satisfactory way to 
mount prints is by using the Kodak Dry Mount- 
ing Tissue, as by this process the prints are 
mounted in absolute contact and will not curl 
even on the thinnest mounts, — especially ad- 
vantageous in multiple mounting. 

20 



Two prints may be mounted back to back, 
and being free from curl can then be used as an 
album leaf. 

The Kodak Dry Mounting Tissue is dry and 
not sticky to handle, mounting is accomplished 
quickly and no time is lost waiting for prints to 
dry after mounting. 

Any size print may be mounted with the tis- 
sue, and as the tissue is water-proof there is no 
possibility of the print becoming stained from 
any chemical in the mount stock. 

To use the tissue, lay a print on its face and 
tack to its back a piece of the tissue of the 
same size, by applying the point of a hot iron to 
small spots at opposite ends. 

Turn the print face up and trim print and 
tissue to desired size. Place in proper position 
on mount, cover the print with a piece of 
smooth paper and press the whole surface with 
a hot flat iron; press, don't rub. 

The iron should be just hot enough to siss 
when touched with a wet finger. If the iron is 
too hot the tissue will stick to the mount and 
not to the print; if too cold, the tissue will 
stick to the print and not to the mount. 

Remedy — lower or raise the temperature of 
the iron and apply it again. 

For mounting with paste the following plan 
is best to employ: 

After prints are trimmed, immerse them in 
a tray of clean water, allowing them to soak 
long enough to become thoroughly limp. Re- 
move to a good sized piece of clean glass, 
placing them in a pile face down. Cover with 
a piece of clean blotting paper and with a 
roller squeegee press all the superfluous water 



from the pile. Then with a good bristle paste 
brush apply a thin, even coating of starch 
paste. Raise the print by taking hold of the 
two opposite corners and turning it over, place 
in position on the mount. Lay a clean, dry 
blotter over the print and with the roller press 
into contact. Any lint or fuzz from the blotter, 
or any paste on the surface of the print should 
be immediately removed with a soft sponge 
or dampened cloth. Any imperfections in the 
finished print may be corrected by spotting, 
using a fine sable brush and spotting color of 
India ink. Care should be exercised to select 
mounts which harmonize with the tone of the 
print If Sepia prints are to be mounted, any 
shade of brown or some of the deeper reds 
may be used, but these same mounts would not 
be suitable for black and white tones. For 
the black and white prints any shade of gray, 
carbon black, buff or cream color may be suc- 
cessfully used. 

Double weight papers may be mounted solid, 
but are best used for folder effects. A very 
artistic way of making prints with the Double 
Weight is to use a sheet of paper considerably 
larger than the negative to be printed from. 
This will necessitate the use of a larger frame 
((jy 2 xSy2 or 8x10). Have a piece of clear glass 
the full size of the frame and fasten your neg- 
ative to the centre of this glass with strips of 
gum paper, cut a mask of opaque paper the 
full size of your glass and from the centre cut 
an opening at least one-quarter of an inch 
smaller than the size of the negative. Place the 
mask in the printing frame between the paper 
and the negative, then print and develop the ex- 
posed paper in the usual way. This will give a 
print with a very wide white margin and when 
thoroughly dried and straightened, by using an 
embossing board, an imprint or counter-sunk 
margin about half an inch around the edges of 
the print will give a fine etching or engraving 

22 



effect. Enclosed in a folder mount made of 
cover paper of desirable tone, you have as artis- 
tic a result as can be produced. 

The process of making prints on 
Finishing Velox Post Cards is identically the 
Velox same as that for making Velox 

prints. The cards are sensitized on 
■ Post one side only and the reverse side 

Cards is printed to conform with the Can- 

adian postal regulations. A print- 
ing frame and glass a size larger than the nega- 
tive should be used, and the cut outs found 
in each package of cards may be used for 
masking the negative. Place the mask between 
the negative and the sensitized side of the Post 
Card and the result will be that when exposed, 
developed and fixed the same as an ordinary 
sheet of Velox paper, you will have your 
picture at one end of the card surrounded with 
a white edge of the part which was protected 
by the opaque mask. Your negative should be 
selected the same as when printing with Velox 
paper and both Regular and Special Post Cards 
should be used. Where contrast is desired, the 
Regular Velvet or Regular Royal Post Cards 
will give the best results and should always 
be used with thin negatives; the Special Velvet, 
Special Portrait, Special Rough, Special Glossy 
and Special Royal Post Cards should be used 
for stronger negatives and when soft effects 
are desired. 

Effective and artistic work may be 
Double done on Velox Post Cards by 

Printing double printing. By this process 

gray borders and ground may be 
produced. The work requires careful and exact 
cutting of the necessary opaque masks and 
accurate registry of the cards when printing. 
Provide a number of pieces of clear glass, cut 
to size 5x7 (old negatives from which the 
emulsion has been thoroughly cleaned by soak- 
ing in a solution of hot water and salsoda are 

23 



suitable), also a few sheets of opaque paper 
the same size (5 x 7). From one of these 
papers make a mask as shown in Fig. 1. 

Measure from edges A and B a space five- 
eighths of an inch wide, then cut an opening 
2x3 inches through which your negative and 
card are to be exposed. Fasten the negative 
with strips of adhesive paper to one of the 
pieces of clear glass, placing that portion to 
be printed directly under the opening in the 
mask. Adjust glass, negative and mask in 
printing frame, lay on the Velox Post Card, 
sensitized side down, so that one end covers 
the opening in the mask. Be careful to have 
edges A and B of glass, mask and card fit 
flush against the corresponding sides of the 
printing frame. Expose to printing light, giv- 
ing correct time required for a perfect print, 
remove the entire outfit from the printing frame 
and insert glass and matt No. 2, which you will 
have previously prepared, as shown in Fig. 2. 

From another piece of opaque paper 5x7 cut 
an opening 3x5 inches and measure exact so 
as to leave margins of one-quarter inch on the 
sides A and B. Gum this matt securely to an- 
other glass, then cut a piece of opaque paper 
2^4 x 3% inches and gum this in clear space at 
a distance of exactly one-half inch from edges 
A and B. Place this entire outfit in printing 
frame, lay on Velox Post Card, previously ex- 
posed under No. 1 matt, fit edges flush into the 
corner of the frame and expose. This second 
exposure should be just enough to produce the 
desired tint, governing time by grade of Velox 
used. If the exposure has been too great the 
border will be dark, if under-exposed the bor- 
der tint will be light. A little practice may be 
necessary in order to secure the tint desired. 

Now, if you have made all measurements ac- 
curately and exposure and development have 
been correct, you will have in a finished post 

24 



card your picture 2 x 3 in size surrounded by a 
gray border one-quarter of an inch wide on top 
and one side, one-half inch wide at bottom and 
one and one-half on other side. The tint of this 
border should be a slaty gray and should har- 
monize with the black tone of your print. 

Other forms, such as ovals and circles, may 
be made and the process for their making is 
the same as already described. 



25 



No. 1 




Shaded portion represents opaque paper. White 
portion shows part cut out. 



B 



No. 2 




Shaded portion represents opaque paper, 
portion shows part cut out. 

26 



White 



Q . »p n „ oc There are occasions when it is 

!£ vinS desirable to modify the tone of 
on Velox ^ r i . . j j. 

Velox prints, in order to secure 

some effect more in keeping with the subject 
than the original color produced by develop- 
ment only. The Sepia tone is permanent and 
may be secured in various ways, but we will 
describe only two of these: the first known as 
the hypo-alum process, and the second, Velox 
Re-development. The hypo-alum process is a 
slow and somewhat uncertain way of obtaining 
good results and consists of a solution of hypo 
and powdered alum in boiling water, into 
which, when cooled, the prints are immersed 
and left until the desired tone has been reached. 
The process requires from one to twelve hours 
and is uncertain in exact results. The Velox 
Re-development process will give the best re- 
sults in a much shorter time, yielding equally 
pleasing and permanent tones. Prints on any 
grade or surface of Velox, except glossy, 
afford most pleasing tones when re-developed, 
but re-development is perhaps specially advan- 
tageous for prints on Royal Velox, as the 
process brings out and accentuates the full 
value of the soft, creamy stock upon which 
Royal Velox is coated; the finished prints pos- 
sessing an almost indescribable softness and 
delicacy. 

Velox prints of any grade or surface which 
have been evenly and thoroughly fixed and 
washed will give desirable results with the Re- 
developer, but some subjects, such as marines 
and snow scenes, are best rendered in the black 
and white. Landscapes, autumn scenes and 
portraits are given greater artistic values by 
the warmth of tone which the Re-developer 
affords. 

A package of Re-developer consists of a box 
of 14 Capsules and a bottle of Solution. Each 
Capsule contains chemicals which require only 
the addition of a certain quantity of water and 

27 



a few drops pure aqua ammonia to make a 
bleaching bath for the reduction of the print 
before re-development. The liquid contained in 
the bottle is highly concentrated and should be 
used carefully, the entire contents of a 4 oz. 
bottle being sufficient to re-develop about four 
hundred 4x5 Velox prints. It is important 
that the prints should have been thoroughly 
washed so that no trace of hypo remains. 
Placing the black and white print in the bleach- 
ing solution, let it remain until all trace of 
black has disappeared from the shadows; it 
should then be removed and rinsed thoroughly 
in fresh water, then placed in the re-developing 
solution, where the faint image immediately 
changes to a warm brown tone, gradually deep- 
ening until all its former brilliancy returns, 
but changed to a Sepia tone instead of black 
and white. A final washing is then given the 
print, the whole process requiring only a short 
time, so the advantages of using this over the 
hypo-alum process are quite evident. 

Velox Re-developer will also produce excel- 
lent Sepia tones on any Bromide or gas-light 
paper; the age of the print does not seemingly 
make any difference in the tones obtainable. 
Best results are obtained from prints which 
have a good bluish black tone, rather than a 
green or olive tone, such as is produced by the 
use of too much Bromide. Both the bleaching 
and re-developing baths will retain their strength 
for some time, if kept in well stopped bottles. 
If the prints show a tendency to blister, it 
doubtless comes from not having used sufficient 
hardener in the fixing bath when making the 
black and white prints. Too strong a solution 
of Re-developer or too long immersion in this 
solution will also cause blisters. After re- 
development and before the final washing the 
prints may be immersed in a hardening bath 
composed of Velox Liquid Hardener, 1 ounce; 
water, 16 ounces. This will correct any ten- 
dency to blister. 

28 



The use of pure aqua ammonia is recom- 
mended and the ordinary household ammonia 
should be avoided. This chemical clears the 
whites and does not change the tone unless an 
excessive amount is used. 

The negative must be thoroughly 
How to washed and freed from any trace 
Make of hypo. Immerse a piece of Velox 
Prints paper in clean water for a few 
from Wet seconds, then placing it on the film 
Negatives s ^ e °f * ne we * negative squeegee 
it carefully so as not to break the 
film. Expose without the use of a printing 
frame. After exposure place both negative and 
paper in water, allowing them to soak for a 
moment before trying to separate them. De- 
velop and fix the print in the usual way. 

Ordinary gloss starch dissolved in 
How to just enough cold water to make a 
Make thick solution is prepared, and 

Good enough boiling water poured into 

Starch it so it thickens in a clear, trans- 

Paste lucent jelly. Set aside and when 

cool remove the skin which forms 
and use the clear paste. 

To Rub the surface of the dry print 

Remove with a tuft of cotton wet with 

Friction wood-alcohol. Do not rub hard 

Marks enough to break the surface of the 

from film and be careful to have the 

Glossy print on some level surface, such 

Velox as a piece of glass. 

Prints ]sj # a. Velox Liquid Developer 

entirely prevents abrasion marks. 



After a careful perusal of the instructions 
given in this Velox Book you should be able 
to produce satisfactory results on any grade 
of Velox paper. 

29 



Causes of Non-Success 

By consulting the following causes of failure 
you will probably be able to locate any trouble 
you may have had. 

Paper found to be defective through fault in 
manufacture will be exchanged free of charge, 
if returned before the expiration date which is 
stamped upon each package. 

If you are unsuccessful and believe that you 
have defective paper, return the unexposed 
sheets in original package, together with a print 
showing nature of the defect, and we will make 
a test, notifying you promptly as to the cause 
of your non-success. 

Prints are too black. 

Negative too weak or thin. 
Over-exposure. 
Over-development. 
Insufficient Bromide of Potassium. 
Perhaps wrong grade of paper used, try 
Regular Velvet Velox. 

Prints are too light, lack detail. 
Under-exposure. 

Negatives too dense for Regular paper. 
Use Special Velvet, or Special Portrait 
Velox. 

Grayish whites throughout entire print. 
Chemical or light fog. 

Insufficient Bromide of Potassium in de- 
developer. 
Old paper. 

Grayish Mottled or granulated appearance of edges 
or entire print. 

Under-exposure, forced development. 

Old paper. 

Paper kept in damp place. 

Moisture. 

Chemical Fumes, Ammonia, etc. 

Illuminating or coal gas. 

80 



Greenish or brownish tones sometimes mottled. 
Developer too old or too weak. 
Excess of Bromide of Potassium. 
Over-exposure. 

Greenish yellow stains noticed when N. A. Velox 
Liquid Developer has been used. 

Under-exposure and forcing. 

Canary yellow stains produced when N. A. V. L. D. 
has been used. 

Fixes out entirely in correctly prepared 

acid Hypo bath. 
(See page 18 for formula.) 
The entire disappearance of this color 
insures correct fixing. 

Brown or red stains. 

Old or oxidized developer. (Never use de- 
veloper after it is much discolored 
or muddy.) Imperfect fixing. 

Developer too warm. 

Fixing bath lacks sufficient acid and prints 
were not kept moving to allow even 
fixing. (See page 18.) 

Purple Discoloration. (Not frequent.) 

Velox paper has been used as a printing- 
out paper. 
Incomplete fixing. 

Round white spots. 

Air-bells on the surface of paper. 
To avoid, develop prints face up, brushing 
off any air-bells that may form. 

Bound or irregular dark spots. 

Caused by air-bells forming on the surface 
of print when placed face down in 
fixing bath, and failing to keep prints 
in motion. 

White deposits all over surface of prints. 
Milky Hypo bath. 

If print is thoroughly washed and deposit 
removed before drying it does no harm. 

31 



Correct fixing bath by adding more No. 8 
Acetic Acid. 



Picture good, but surface covered with black marks. 
Abrasion marks. (See page 15.) 

Blisters. 

Prints have been creased or broken while 

washing. 
Do not allow water from the tap to fall 

directly on the prints. 
Too strong acetic acid used in Hardener. 
Too great difference between temperature 

of solution and wash-water. 
Fixing bath lacks sufficient hardener. 
Never use a plain Hypo fixing bath; always 

acidify with Velox Liquid Hardener. 

Blisters occurring during re-development. 
(See page 28.) 

Freaks. 

Picture develops irregularly and appears to 
be covered with greasy streaks and 
finger marks and gives the impression 
that there are spots on the paper 
which have never been coated. Of all 
complaints received regarding Velox 
paper, none are caused by any condi- 
tion more annoying than this "freak" 
trouble. It is annoying to the photo- 
grapher because he feels sure the fault 
is in the paper, and annoying to us 
because we know that the fault lies in 
incorrect solutions. We publish here- 
with a half-tone of this curious effect. 
It is in warm weather when the humid- 
ity is great that these "freaks" most 
frequently occur. 

32 




Developed in M. Q. , half as strong as that 
advised in instruction sheet. 




Developed in M. Q., strength as 
advised in instruction sheet. 



Undoubtedly the paper absorbs moisture 
unevenly and in certain spots becomes 
repellent to the action of an incorrect 
developer. In making up a developing 
solution it is absolutely essential that 
pure chemicals be used, and as Velox 

33 



requires a bath which contains nearly 
twice as much Carbonate of Soda as 
Sulphite of Soda, it is easy to see that 
any mistake made in the proportion of 
either chemical would be apt to cause 
trouble. The remedy for "freaks" is to 
throw out your developer and mix a 
fresh solution, and if necessary use it 
stronger. 

Yellowish whites when other than N. A. has been 
used. 

Stain all over prints is result of under- 
exposure and forcing. 

Prints not kept moving for the first few 
seconds after immersion in the acid 
hypo fixing bath. 

Too weak developer. 

Insufficient washing after fixing. 

Iron in wash-water — may come from rust 
in water pipes. 

Sea air will affect Velox, causing yellow 
whites, so packages should not be left 
open and prints should be developed 
immediately after exposure. 



The permanency of Velox prints 
Permanency hag never Deen questioned. Per- 
manency of any Velox print depends upon the 
thoroughness of manipulation. It is beyond 
question that with correct developer freshly 
prepared and with thorough fixing and wash- 
ing, Velox prints will be absolutely permanent. 
Many dealers have sample prints which were 
sent them years ago and have exposed them 
continually to every conceivable atmospheric 
condition. This is an unanswerable argument 
in favor of Velox permanency. 

34 



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36 



VELOX IN ROLLS FOR CIRKUT 
NEGATIVES 

Single Weight 



ROLLS 


6 Inches 

Wide 


6^ Inches 
Wide 


8 Tnches 
Wide 


10 Inches 
Wide 


16 Inches 
Wide 


25 ft. 


$1.50 


$1.65 


$2.00 


$2.50 


$4.00 


50 ft. 


3.00 


3.30 


4.00 


5.00 


8.00 


100 ft. 


6.00 


6.60 


8.00 


10.00 


16.00 



Double Weight 



25 ft. 


1.90 


2.10 


2.50 


3.15 


5.00 


50 ft. 


3.80 


4.20 


5.00 


6.30 


10.00 


100 ft, 


7.60 


8.40 


10.00 


12.60 


20.00 



Price List — Continued 

Velox Post Cards — Regular Velvet, Special Velvet, 
Special Portrait, Special Rough, Special Glossy, and 
Regular and Special Royal, 20 cents per dozen; 
$1.10 per % gross; $2.00 per gross. 

These are pieces of Double Weight Velox, ^Vz^ 1 ^ 
inches, on the uncoated sides of which is printed 
matter in accordance with the Canadian Postal Laws, 
while the sensitive sides are to be treated in the 
same way as the regular product. 

Velox Double Post Cards, 3%xll inches, Velvet 
(Special and Regular), Portrait (Special) and Rough 
(Special), per dozen, 40 cents; % gross, $2.20; 
gross, $4.00. 

Brownie Velox Post Cards, 2%x4 1 / 4, Velvet, 
Special or Regular, per doz., 15c; half 

gross, 80c. ; gross $1.50 

N. A. Velox Liquid Developer, 4-oz. bottle 
(makes 20 ozs. for Special, 12 ozs. for 
Regular) 25 

37 



N. A. Velox Liquid Developer, 16-oz. bottle. . $0.75 
Non-Abrasion M. Q. Developer Tubes, per box 

of 3 tubes 25 

Nepera Solution, 4-oz. bottle, a Universal De- 
veloper (see page 17) 20 

Do., 16 ozs 60 

Nepera Capsules, per doz 15 

Nepera M. Q. tubes, Non-Abrasion, box of 5 

tubes 75 

Kodak Acid Fixing Powder, 1-lb. package 25 

Do., V 2 lb 15 

Do., V± lb 10 

Velox Liquid Hardener, 8-oz. bottle (sufficient 

to acidify 8 pints of Hypo Solution) 25 

4-oz. bottle 15 

Velox Re-developer, per package containing 14 
capsules of bleaching agent and 4 ozs. of 

Concentrated Re-developer 50 

Do., 2-oz. bottle, per package 30 

Carbonate of Soda (desiccated), per 1-lb. 

bottle 20 

Sulphite of Soda (desiccated), per 1-lb bottle .30 

No. 1 Velox Amateur Printer 2.00 

Welsbach Attachment (extra). Consisting of 

burner, mantle and large chimney 1.25 

Extra Mantles, each 15 

Tubing, 6 ft. lengths. For connecting printer 

with gas supply 50 

Electric attachment (extra) comprising socket 

and plug connected by 6 ft. cord 75 

CANADIAN KODAK CO., LIMITED, 

Toronto, Can. 



38 



It's Poor Economy 

to spoil good films, good 
plates and good papers 
with cheap chemicals 

To be sure they're pure in- 
sist on the mark that de- 
notes the Kodak Quality: 




ALL DEALERS 



CANADIAN KODAK CO. 

Limited 

TORONTO, CAN, 



JUST PRESS 
With a Hot Iron 




KODAK 
DRY MOUNTING TISSUE 

Insures Absolute Contact 
Without Curl, Even on 
the Thinnest Mounts 



ALL DEALERS 



CANADIAN KODAK CO. 

Limited 
TORONTO, CAN. 



:he danger signal 

When the photographer fixes a negative 
he can tell from its appearance whether or 
not it IS fixed. With prints he has never 
had any such guide — and many faded ones 
have been the result. 

But the N. A. Velox Liquid Developer 
puts out a danger signal. It turns the print 
a canary yellow, and the color does not dis- 
appear until fixing is complete. 

Fifteen minutes in the Acid Fixing Bath 
will remove this color every time, unless 
the bath has been weakened by overwork- 
ing or has been too much diluted. If the 
color remains the print isn't fixed— if it 
disappears it is fixed, and, moreover, IT 
WILL be permanent. 

The yellow color on the prints has led 
some people to believe that there is cyanide 
in the N. A. Developer. This is positively 
not the case. It contains no cyanide or 
other dangerous poison. 

The N. A. Developer absolutely does 
away with abrasion marks on Glossy Velox. 

Velox, N. A. Velox Liquid Developer, 
Velox Hardener — they work best together. 

CANADIAN KODAK CO., Limited, 
Toronto, Can. 



\VI